chapter 1

Aker, Jenny C. 2011. “Dial ‘A’ for Agriculture: A Review of Information and Communication Technologies for Agricultural Extension in Developing Countries.” Agricultural Economics 42 (6). Medford, Mass.: 631–47. doi:10.1111/j.1574-0862.2011.00545.x.

Alvesson, Mats, and Kaj Sköldberg. 2009. Reflexive Methodology: New Vistas for Qualitative Research Second Edition. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.

Bailur, Savita. 2009. “Representation and Reflexivity in ICT for Development (Telecentre) Research.” In Internationalization, Design and Global Development, edited by Nuray Aykin, 5623:319–27. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-02767-3_36.

Baumuller, Heike. 2012. Facilitating Agricultural Technology Adoption among the Poor: The Role of Service Delivery through Mobile Phones. Bonn.

Bell, Genevieve, and Paul Dourish. 2006. “Yesterday’s Tomorrows: Notes on Ubiquitous Computing’s Dominant Vision.” Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 11 (2): 133–43. doi:10.1007/s00779-006-0071-x.

Beniger, James R. 1986. The Control Revolution: Technological and Economic Origins of the Information Society. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Benjamin, Peter. 2012. “mHealth Hope or Hype: Experiences from Cell-Life.” In mHealth in Practice: Mobile Technology for Health Promotion in the Developing World, edited by Jonathan Donner and Patricia Mechael, 62–71. London: Bloomsbury Academic.

Berners-Lee, Tim, Robert Cailliau, Ari Luotonen, Henrik Frystyk Nielsen, and Arthur Secret. 1994. “The World-Wide Web.” Communications of the ACM 37 (8): 76–82. doi:10.1145/179606.179671.

Boyera, Stephane. 2007. “Can the Mobile Web Bridge the Digital Divide?” Interactions 14 (3): 12. doi:10.1145/1242421.1242433.

Castells, Manuel, Mireia Fernández-Ardèvol, Jack Linchuan Qiu, and Araba Sey. 2007. Mobile Communication and Society: A Global Perspective. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Castells, Manuel. 1996. The Rise of the Network Society. Vol. 1. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Chib, Arul. 2013. “The Promise and Peril of mHealth in Developing Countries.” Mobile Media & Communication 1 (1): 69–75. doi:10.1177/2050157912459502.

Chigona, Wallace, Darry Beukes, Junaid Vally, and Maureen Tanner. 2009. “Can Mobile Internet Help Alleviate Social Exclusion in Developing Countries?” The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries 36: 1–16.

Craven, Paul, and Barry Wellman. 1973. “The Network City.” Sociological Inquiry 43 (3-4): 57–88. doi:10.1111/j.1475-682X.1973.tb00003.x.

De sola Pool, Ithiel, ed. 1977. The Social Impact of the Telephone. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Desai, Vandana, and Robert B. Potter, eds. 2013. The Companion to Development Studies. New York, New York, USA: Routledge.

Donner, Jonathan, and Andrew Maunder. 2014. “Beyond the Phone Number: Challenges of Representing Informal Microenterprise on the Internet.” In Living inside Mobile Social Information, edited by James E. Katz, 159–92. Dayton, Ohio: Greyden Press.

Donner, Jonathan, and Marion Walton. 2013. “Your Phone Has Internet – Why Are You at a Library PC? Re-Imagining Public Access for the Mobile Internet Era.” In Proceedings of INTERACT 2013: 14th IFIP TC 13 International Conference, 347–64. Berlin: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-40483-2_25.

Donner, Jonathan, Katrin Verclas, and Kentaro Toyama. 2008. “Reflections on MobileActive08 and the M4D Landscape.” In Proceedings of the First International Conference on M4D, edited by John Sören Pettersson, 73–83. Karlstad, Sweden: Karlstad University Studies.

Donner, Jonathan, Shikoh Gitau, and Gary Marsden. 2011. “Exploring Mobile-Only Internet Use: Results of a Training Study in Urban South Africa.” International Journal of Communication 5: 574–97.

Donner, Jonathan. 2008a. “Research Approaches to Mobile Use in the Developing World: A Review of the Literature.” The Information Society 24 (3): 140–59. doi:10.1080/01972240802019970.

Donner, Jonathan. 2008b. “Shrinking Fourth World? Mobiles, Development and Inclusion.” In Handbook of Mobile Communication Studies, edited by James E. Katz, 29–42. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Donner, Jonathan. 2010. “Framing M4D: The Utility of Continuity and the Dual Heritage of ‘Mobiles and Development.’” The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries 44 (3): 1–16.

Doron, Assa, and Robin Jeffrey. 2013. The Great Indian Phone Book: How the Cheap Cell Phone Changes Business, Politics, and Daily Life. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Duncombe, Richard A. 2010. “Mobiles for Development Research: Quality and Impact.” In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on M4D: Mobile Communication Technology for Development, edited by Jakob Svensson and Gudrun Wicander, 49–59. Karlstad, Sweden: Karlstad Universitet.

Duncombe, Richard A. 2012. Understanding Mobile Phone Impact on Livelihoods in Developing Countries: A New Research Framework. 48. Development Informatics Working Paper Series #48. Development Informatics Working Papers. Manchester, UK.

Dutton, William H., ed. 2013. The Oxford Handbook of Internet Studies. Oxford, UK: Oxford. doi:10.109310.1093/oxfordhb/9780199589074.001.0001.

Ekine, Sokari. 2009. SMS Uprising: Mobile Activism in Africa. Edited by Sokari Ekine. Cape Town, South Africa: Pambazuka Press.

Eubanks, Virginia. 2011. Digital Dead End: Fighting for Social Justice in the Information Age. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Ewing, Jack. 2007. “Upwardly Mobile In Africa.” Bloomberg Businessweek. September 23. http://www.businessweek.com/stories/2007-09-23/upwardly-mobile-in-africa.

Farman, Jason. 2012. “Introduction to the Social Transformations from the Mobile Internet Special Issue.” Future Internet 4 (2): 545–50. doi:10.3390/fi4020545.

Feldmann, Valerie. 2003. “Mobile Overtakes Fixed: Implications for Policy and Regulation.” Geneva: International Telecommunication Union. http://www.itu.int/osg/spu/ni/mobileovertakes/Resources/Mobileovertakes_Paper.pdf.

FHI 360. 2013. “Mobiles! What Have We Learned? Where Are We Going?” Washington, D.C. September 26. http://mobiledevconference.com/.

Fischer, Claude S. 1992. America Calling: A Social History of the Telephone to 1940. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Forestier, Emmanuel, Jeremy Grace, and Charles Kenny. 2002. “Can Information and Communication Technologies Be pro-Poor?” Telecommunications Policy 26 (11): 623–46. doi:10.1016/S0308-5961(02)00061-7.

Foster, Christopher, and Richard Heeks. 2013. “Analyzing Policy for Inclusive Innovation: The Mobile Sector and Base-of-the-Pyramid Markets in Kenya.” Innovation and Development 3 (1): 103–19. doi:10.1080/2157930X.2013.764628.

Gitau, Shikoh, Gary Marsden, and Jonathan Donner. 2010. “After Access: Challenges Facing Mobile-Only Internet Users in the Developing World.” In Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems – CHI ’10, 2603–6. New York: ACM. doi:10.1145/1753326.1753720.

Goggin, Gerard, and Larissa Hjorth, eds. 2014. The Routledge Companion to Mobile Media. New York, NY, USA: Routledge.

Goggin, Gerard. 2006. Cell Phone Culture: Mobile Technology in Everyday Life. New York: Routledge.

Gomez, Ricardo, Luis F. Baron, and Brittany Fiore-Silfvast. 2012. “The Changing Field of ICTD.” In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development – ICTD ’12, 65–74. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press. doi:10.1145/2160673.2160682.

Grantham, Andrew, and George Tsekouras. 2004. “Information Society: Wireless ICTs’ Transformative Potential.” Futures 36 (3): 359–77. doi:10.1016/S0016-3287(03)00066-1.

GSMA Mobile for Development Intelligence. 2013. Scaling Mobile for Development: Harness the Opportunity. London.

Gurstein, Michael. 2013. “Internet Justice: A Meme Whose Time Has Come.” Gurstein’s Community Informatics Blog. November 27. http://gurstein.wordpress.com/2013/11/27/internet-justice-a-meme-whose-time-has-come/.

Gurumurthy, Anita. 2010. “From Social Enterprises to Mobiles — Seeking a Peg to Hang a Premeditated ICTD Theory in an Ecology of Unequal Actors.” Information Technologies & International Development 6 (SE): 57–63.

Heeks, Richard. 2008. “ICT4D 2.0: The Next Phase of Applying ICT for International Development.” Computer 41 (6): 26–33. doi:10.1109/MC.2008.192.

Horst, Heather A., and Daniel Miller. 2006. The Cell Phone: An Anthropology of Communication. Oxford: Berg.

Hutchings, Misha T., Anurupa Dev, Meena Palaniappan, Veena Srinivasan, Nithya Ramanathan, John Taylor, Nancy Ross, and Paula Luu. 2012. “mWASH: Mobile Phone Applications for the Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Sector.” Los Angeles: Nextleaf Analytics. April. http://www.pacinst.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/full_report36.pdf.

Jones, Steve, Veronika Karnowski, Richard Ling, and Thilo Von Pape. 2013. “Welcome to Mobile Media & Communication.” Mobile Media & Communication 1 (1): 3–7. doi:10.1177/2050157912471456.

Karamchandani, Ashish, Michael Kubzansky, and Paul Frandano. 2009. “Emerging Markets, Emerging Models: Market Based Solutions to the Challenges of Global Poverty.” Monitor Group Reports. Cambridge, Mass. March. http://www.mim.monitor.com/downloads/emergingmarkets_full.pdf.

Karnani, Aneel. 2007. “The Mirage of Marketing to the Bottom of the Pyramid: How the Private Sector Can Help Alleviate Poverty.” California Management Review 49 (4): 90–112.

Katz, Ari. 2012. “‘After Access, What?’ Reflections Following Salon Discussion in the Philippines.” Beyond Access (blog). May 17. http://beyondaccess.net/2012/05/17/after-access-what-reflections-following-salon-discussion-in-the-philippines/.

Katz, James E., and Mark Aakhus. 2002. “Conclusion: Making Meaning of Mobiles – a Theory of Apparatgeist.” In Perpetual Contact: Mobile Communication, Private Talk, and Public Performance, edited by James E. Katz and Mark Aakhus, 301–18. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Kenny, Charles. 2012. Getting Better: Why Global Development Is Succeeding–and How We Can Improve the World Even More. New York: Basic Books.

Kim, Yong-Chan, Joo-Young Jung, Elisia L. Cohen, and Sandra J. Ball-Rokeach. 2004. “Internet Connectedness before and after September 11 2001.” New Media & Society 6 (5): 611–31. doi:10.1177/146144804047083.

Kinkade, Sheila, and Katrin Verclas. 2008. “Wireless Technology for Social Change: Trends in Mobile Use by NGOs.” Access to Communication Publication Series Vol. 2. Washington, DC and Berkshire, UK: UN Foundation–Vodafone Group Foundation Partnership. April 29. http://www.dochas.ie/Shared/Files/4/Trends_in_mobile_use_by_NGOs[2].pdf.

Kuriyan, Renee, Isha Ray, and Kentaro Toyama. 2008. “Information and Communication Technologies for Development : The Bottom of the Pyramid Model in Practice.” The Information Society 24 (789921171): 93–104. doi:10.1080/01972240701883948.

Latour, Bruno. 1987. Science in Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Ling, Richard, and Heather A. Horst. 2011. “Mobile Communication in the Global South.” New Media & Society 13 (3): 363–74. doi:10.1177/1461444810393899.

Ling, Richard, and Jonathan Donner. 2009. Mobile Communication. Cambridge, UK: Polity.

Ling, Richard. 2008. New Tech, New Ties. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Marsden, Gary, Lucia Terrenghi, and Matt Jones. 2010. “Globicomp—doing Ubicomp Differently: Introduction to the Special Issue.” Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 15 (6). Springer London: 551–52. doi:10.1007/s00779-010-0336-2.

Marsden, Gary. 2007. “What Is the Mobile Internet?” Interactions 14 (6): 24–25. doi:10.1145/1300655.1300672.

May, Christopher. 2000. “The Information Society as Mega-Machine: The Continuing Relevance of Lewis Mumford.” Information, Communication & Society 3 (2): 241–65.

Melody, William H, and Robin E Mansell. 1983. “The Debate over Critical vs. Administrative Research: Circularity or Challenge.” Journal of Communication 33 (3): 103–16. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.1983.tb02412.x.

Minges, Michael. 2012. “Overview.” In Information and Communications for Development 2012: Maximizing Mobile, edited by World Bank, 11–30. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Mudliar, Preeti, Jonathan Donner, and William Thies. 2013. “Emergent Practices Around CGNet Swara: A Voice Forum for Citizen Journalism in Rural India.” Information Technologies & International Development 9 (2): 65–79.

Pearce, Katy E. 2011. “Convergence through Mobile Peer-to-Peer File Sharing in the Republic of Armenia.” International Journal of Communication 5: 511–28.

Pearce, Katy E., and Ronald E. Rice. 2013. “Digital Divides From Access to Activities: Comparing Mobile and Personal Computer Internet Users.” Journal of Communication 63 (4): 721–44. doi:10.1111/jcom.12045.

Pearce, Katy E., Janine Slaker, and Nida Ahmad. 2012. “Is Your Web Everyone’s Web? Theorizing the Web through the Lens of the Device Divide.” Theorizing the Web 2012. April 12. http://fr.slideshare.net/katyp1/katy-pearce-ttw12.

Pearce, Katy E.. 2013. “Phoning It in: Theory in Mobile Media and Communication in Developing Countries.” Mobile Media & Communication 1 (1). SAGE Publications: 76–82. doi:10.1177/2050157912459182.

Peng, T.-Q., L. Zhang, Z.-J. Zhong, and J. J. Zhu. 2012. “Mapping the Landscape of Internet Studies: Text Mining of Social Science Journal Articles 2000-2009.” New Media & Society 15 (5): 644–64. doi:10.1177/1461444812462846.

Pettersson, John Sören, ed. 2008. Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on M4D Mobile Communication Technology for Development: 11–12 December, 2008, Karlstad University, Sweden. Karlstad, Sweden: Karlstad University Studies.

Poblet, Marta, ed. 2011. Mobile Technologies for Conflict Management. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-1384-0.

Prahalad, C.K., and Allen L. Hammond. 2002. “Serving the World’s Poor, Profitably.” Harvard Business Review 80 (9): 48–59.

Prinsloo, Mastin, and Marion Walton. 2008. “Situated Responses to the Digital Literacies of Electronic Communication in Marginal School Settings.” In Yearbook 2008: African Media, African Children, edited by Norma Pecora, Enyonam Osei-Hwere, and Ulla Carlson, 99–116. Göteborg: Nordicom, Göteborgs Universitet.

Qiu, Jack Linchuan. 2009. Working-Class Network Society: Communication Technology and the Information Have-Less in Urban China. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Raja, Siddhartha, Katherine Maher, Michael Minges, and Priya Surya. 2012. “Making Government Mobile.” In Information and Communications for Development 2012: Maximizing Mobile, 87–102. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Rangaswamy, Nimmi, and Edward Cutrell. 2012. “Anthropology, Development and ICTs.” In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development – ICTD ’12, 85–93. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press. doi:10.1145/2160673.2160685.

Robinson, John P., Paul DiMaggio, and Eszter Hargittai. 2003. “New Social Survey Perspectives on the Digital Divide.” IT&Society 1 (5): 1–22.

Rogers, Everett M. 1976. “Communication and Development: The Passing of the Dominant Paradigm.” Communication Research 3 (2): 213–40. doi:10.1177/009365027600300207.

Roth, Regina. 2010. “Marx on Technical Change in the Critical Edition.” The European Journal of the History of Economic Thought 17 (5): 1223–51. doi:10.1080/09672567.2010.522239.

Sawhney, Harmeet. 2009. “Innovations at the Edge: The Impact of Mobile Technologies on the Character of the Internet.” In Mobile Technologies: From Telecommunications to Media, edited by Gerard Goggin and Larissa Hjorth, 105–17. New York, New York, USA: Routledge.

Schramm, Wilbur Lang. 1997. The Beginnings of Communication Study in America: A Personal Memoir. Edited by Steven H. Chaffee and Everett M. Rogers. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.

Shah, Rajiv, and Priya Jaisinghani. 2014. “Toward a More Inclusive Digital Economy: Foreword to Innovations Special Issue on Digital Inclusion.” Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 9 (3-4): 3–6.

Slater, Don. 2013. New Media, Development & Globalization. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.

Smythe, Dallas W., and Tran Dinh. 1983. “On Critical and Administrative Research: A New Critical Analysis.” Journal of Communication 33 (3). Wiley Online Library: 117–27. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.1983.tb02413.x.

Stevenson, Siobhan. 2009. “Digital Divide: A Discursive Move Away from the Real Inequities.” The Information Society 25 (1): 1–22. doi:10.1080/01972240802587539.

Sun, Huatong, and William F. Hart-Davidson. 2014. “Binding the Material and the Discursive with a Relational Approach of Affordances.” In Proceedings of the 32nd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems – CHI ’14, 3533–42. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press. doi:10.1145/2556288.2557185.

Tacchi, Jo. 2014. “Being Meaningfully Mobile: Mobile Phones and Development.” In Technological Determinism and Social Change: Communication in a Tech-Mad World, edited by Jan Servaes, 105–24. Lanham, Maryland, USA: Lexington Books.

Traxler, John, and Steve Vosloo. 2014. “Introduction: The Prospects for Mobile Learning.” Prospects 44 (1): 13–28. doi:10.1007/s11125-014-9296-z.

Unwin, Tim. 2009. ICT4D: Information and Communication Technology for Development. Cambridge University Press.

Unwin, Tim. 2013. “The Internet and Development.” In The Oxford Handbook of Internet Studies. Oxford.

Vodafone. 2005. “Africa: The Impact of Mobile Phones.” Policy Paper Series #2. March. http://www.vodafone.com/content/dam/vodafone/about/public_policy/policy_papers/public_policy_series_2.pdf.

Walton, Marion, and Nicola Pallitt. 2012. “Grand Theft South Africa: Games, Literacy and Inequality in Consumer Childhoods.” Language and Education 26 (4): 347–61. doi:10.1080/09500782.2012.691516.

Walton, Marion, and Pierrinne Leukes. 2013. “Prepaid Social Media and Mobile Discourse in South Africa.” Journal of African Media Studies 5 (2): 149–67. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1386/jams.5.2.149_1.

Walton, Marion, Gary Marsden, Silke Hasreiter, and Sena Allen. 2012. “Degrees of Sharing: Proximate Media Sharing and Messaging by Young People in Khayelitsha.” In Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services – MobileHCI ’12, 403–12. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press. doi:10.1145/2371574.2371636.

Walton, Marion. 2009. “Mobile Literacies and South African Teens: Leisure Reading, Writing, and MXit Chatting for Teens in Langa and Guguletu.” Report for the Shuttleworth Foundation. Cape Town. December. http://m4lit.files.wordpress.com/2010/03/m4lit_mobile_literacies_mwalton_20101.pdf.

Walton. 2014. “Pavement Internet: Mobile Media Economies and Ecologies in South Africa.” In The Routledge Companion to Mobile Media, edited by Gerard Goggin and Larissa Hjorth, 450–61. London: Routledge.

Wellman, Barry. 1999. “Networks in the Global Village: Life in Contemporary Communities.” Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Whitney, Patrick, and Anjali Kelkar. 2010. “Designing for the Base of the Pyramid.” Design Management Review 15 (4). Wiley Online Library: 41–47. doi:10.1111/j.1948-7169.2004.tb00181.x.

Wijesinghe, Lanka, Prasanga Siriwardena, Sameera Wijeratne, Harsha Purasinghe, and Dileeka Dias. 2011. “Disaster and Emergency Warning Network (DEWN): Harnessing Cellular Technologies for Early Warning Dissemination.” 2011 IEEE Global Humanitarian Technology Conference, October. Ieee, 476–80. doi:10.1109/GHTC.2011.52.

World Bank. 2012. Information and Communications for Development 2012: Maximizing Mobile. Washington, DC: The World Bank. doi:10.1596/978-0-8213-8991-1.

Zainudeen, Ayesha. 2011. “Are the Poor Stuck in Voice? Conditions for Adoption of More- Than-Voice Mobile Services.” Information Technologies & International Development 7 (3): 45–59.

Zeschky, Marco, Bastian Widenmayer, and Oliver Gassmann. 2011. “Frugal Innovation in Emerging Markets.” Research-Technology Management 54 (4): 38–45. doi:10.5437/08956308X5404007.